Nurses in France

Nurses in France

In France, medical practitioners are aware that the practice of the delivery of primary care by nurses occurs in other countries. However, there is disagreement about how to implement this practice. This aspect of the issue of front line care has not yet been studied in France. In this article, our aim is to identify to what extent the delivery of primary care by nurses is considered acceptable by doctors and nurses working in hospital emergency departments and in public and private health centres. The results of our research provide a picture of opinions that exist among doctors and nurses. These opinions highlight practices that are outside the current regulations and present perspectives, which range from conditionally in favour to unfavourable. Such opinions contribute to our knowledge because they are derived from the professionals directly involved and describe what is acceptable in this particular context.

Keywords: anthropology, health care, primary, health care professionals, nursing, sociology


Emergency departments today receive increasing numbers of patients with general medical complaints. This trend is not unique to France but has long been observed internationally (Boyle, Beniuk, Higginson, & Atkinson, 2012; Schneider, Gallery, Schafermeyer, & Zwemer, 2003; Tahan & Cesta, 2005). A poor distribution of health professionals across the country, aging of the population, and the growth of chronic disease are real problems that are overloading emergency departments and limiting access to care. Apart from emergency departments, other health care organizations and groups of health care professionals, such as public health centres and private centres, are seeing types of patients whose need to be seen by a doctor may be debatable.

The organization of care and the enactment of the competences and capacities of health professionals must be reviewed to safeguard the quality of care given to all patients, especially to those who arrive in a life-threatening condition or emergency, those whose condition is likely to deteriorate quickly, or those presenting with complex clinical conditions (Bodenheimer, 2008). In other countries, advanced practice nurses are responsible for delivering front line care. Research shows that first response care given by nurses is as effective as that provided by doctors (Kelleher).

The existence elsewhere of forms of advanced nursing practice is known in France and is even cited or recommended in reports (Berland & Gausseron, 2002, Berland, 2003; Cordier, 2013; Hénart, Berland, & Cadet, 2011). However, these types of advanced nursing practices are not yet formalized; thus, forms of advanced nursing practice have yet to be developed in France. There is also said to be resistance to reforming the nursing profession. At present, there are no data to enable us to objectively measure the acceptability of a transformation of the profession that would place nurses on the front line of delivering primary care.

Public health authorities are exploring the advantages and the possibilities of organizing advanced nursing practice and of creating new professional pathways to fill the gaps left by changing health care needs. These issues have been the subject of several ministerial reports; however, concrete proposals are lacking. Until the present, there has been no French definition of advanced nursing practice. Usually, discussion about this topic refers to the work of the International Council of Nurses (2009):

[a] Nurse Practitioner/Advanced Practice Nurse is a registered nurse who has acquired the expert knowledge base, complex decision-making skills and clinical competencies for expanded practice, the characteristics of which are shaped by the context and/or country in which s/he is credentialed to practice. A Masters degree is recommended for entry level. (p. 1)

At the international level, nurses’ responsibilities are not uniform, in spite of this international definition of advanced practice. Thus, each country can adapt the implementation of this definition to its context.

Aim of the Study

The aim of this article is to identify the acceptability, in the view of doctors and nurses working in emergency departments, public health centres, and private health centres, of advanced care being delivered by nurses. Is the nursing profession ready to accept more autonomy in front line care? Intentionally, we have not used the expression "advanced nursing practice" in our guidelines, focusing the questions on their everyday practices to see whether they have activities outside the nursing regulations.

Go to: Background

In some countries, nurses play an independent role in front line care. They are sometimes called "advanced nurse practitioners" or "specialized clinical nurses." In the United States, these practices were established and formalized in the first half of the 20th century. Later, other countries, such as Canada, also adopted this pathway (DiCenso et al., 2010; Kaasalainen et al., 2010). In the United Kingdom, the "new nursing" movement has been working for some years toward greater autonomy for nurses (Feroni & Kober, 1995), and advanced practice has become operational (Mc Gee & Castledine, 2003). In France, these professional roles do not exist in the same way, nor is there the advanced nursing practice that has generally developed in other countries, such as the United States (Donelan, DesRoches, Dittus, & Buerhaus, 2013; Rigolosi & Salmond, 2014), where the Nurse Practitioners Modernization Act will take effect on January 1, 2015.

In other countries, with contexts as varied as the United Kingdom, such as the Republic of Ireland, Switzerland, Jordan, Pakistan, Holland, Spain, Sweden, Lebanon, New Zealand, and Australia, work is ongoing to establish and develop advanced nursing practice and to create educational programs for this practice. In French-speaking Switzerland, a consensus about the definition of advanced practices is emerging (Morin, Ramelet, & Shaha, 2013). It is true that the organization of care in each country has an important impact on the evolution of the nursing profession.

In some countries (Belgium, France, Ireland, Czech Republic), the principal mode of delivery of front line care continues to depend mainly on medical doctors alone, while in other countries (Australia, Canada, United States, Finland, UK), clinical practice teams are the main model . . . . As might be expected, advanced practice by nurses in front line care is most developed in the countries where primary care is mainly provided by clinical practice teams. (Delamaire & Lafortune, 2010, p. 55, Authors’ translation)

Therefore, the specificity of each country must also be taken into account.

The French concept of a "particular role" assigned to nurses appears for the first time in a law passed in 1978 (Acker, 1991, p. 135). Essentially, this role consists of providing personal care for the comfort and life support of the patient (Collière, 1982, 1996). These forms of care have been codified and given a theoretical basis: "nursing" as a profession also includes education, surveillance, and support for patients and their families. Within this framework, "the nurse is competent to take initiatives and carry out the care he or she judges to be needed" (Article R.4311-3 of the Code de santé publique—Public Health Code, Authors’ translation). However, this autonomous space confines nurses within a compartment in a limited sector. Outside this particular role, nurses also put doctors’ prescriptions into practice in conformity with the French Public Health Code. A nurse’s activities may take any of three general forms: (a) a prescription involving more or less close supervision by a doctor, ranging from the physical absence to the presence of the doctor in the immediate vicinity at the time the action is performed; (b) formalized prescriptions in the form of a protocol giving the nurse the freedom to determine the application of a course of action, according to predetermined criteria; and (c) the retroactive authorization of actions carried out in an emergency and in the absence of a doctor. In the French system, care of whatever type is always delivered on medical authority, with rare exceptions. However, the distinction between actions performed as part of the nurse’s "particular" role and those that follow a doctor’s prescription is a formal one. The practice is more complicated. Some practices, which partly correspond to the characteristics of advanced practice, have been observed (Jovic, Guenot, Naberes, & Maison, 2009). In France, the debate on these subjects truly began at the national level in the early 2000s. France has been slow in establishing advanced practice. From the French point of view, it is considered daring for a nurse to take care of a patient without the supervision of a doctor. However, changes in health needs, professional practice, and the economics of health care are raising questions about the sustainability of this model and about its possible reform. There are child cares, operating theatre, or anaesthesia nurses, with specific pay levels, but their status in relation to medical procedures is no different from that of generalist state-registered nurses.

Go to: Method | Design

To achieve our research aim, we used a qualitative methodology. This type of approach is more suitable for exploring a theme that is poorly known. With no a priori assumption of what we will find, we adopted a perspective of open description. After data collection, in line with the themes that emerged, we decided not to analyze whether the change was possible but whether it was acceptable.

Research Sites and Participants

The qualitative field research took place in 2011 and 2012 in Paris and the Paris region in seven emergency departments that dealt with patients with medical (three), psychiatric (two), and/or paediatric (two) problems; and in three public health centres and two private health centres. In the first two of these structures, the health professionals are salaried public servants, whereas in the third, they are independent and work in the private sector. The objective of this sampling was to present a diversity of health institutions representative of the health organization of the region in rural and urban areas.

The interviewed sample (N = 24) consisted of nurses (n = 12) and doctors (n = 12). The specialties of the nurses and doctors were as follows: medicine (n = 8), psychiatry (n = 2), and paediatrics (n = 2).

Table 1.

Demographic Characteristics of the Participants.

Characteristics Nurses Doctors
Female 12 5
Male 0 7
Average age: 43 (range = 32–55) 43 (range = 34–54)

Length of service in years

Characteristics Nurses Doctors
< 2 1 0
2–5 4 4
6–10 6 3
11–15 0 4
16–20 0 0
> 20 1 1

To be included in the study, the health workers were required to have been in the service for at least 2 years; despite this, one of the nurses had been on the team for less than 2 years, but was nevertheless its longest serving staff member.

Data Collection

Data were collected via in-depth interviews (Blanchet & Gotman, 1992; Pires, 1997), which are suitable for a socio-anthropological type of analysis. For a phenomenological analysis, approximately 10 interviews are sufficient (Savoie-Zajc, 2007), but for data saturation, generally, at least 20 are needed. "Saturation means that no additional data are being found whereby the sociologist can develop properties of the category. As he sees similar instances over and over again, the researcher becomes empirically confident that a category is saturated" (Glaser & Strauss, 1973, p. 61). After 24 interviews, we reached this point. This qualitative methodology is based on an inductive approach, identifying themes that emerge spontaneously from respondents’ examples of activity.

Two semi-structured guides were developed, one for the doctors’ and one for the nurses’ interviews (see appendix). These guides were similar, but were adapted to each respondent category to collect the different perspectives of professionals regarding the acceptability of nurses being more autonomous and dealing with patients independently.

The interviews, which were between 30 minutes and 1 hour 30 minutes in duration, were carried out face to face (Olivier de Sardan, 2003). They aimed to capture opinions regarding greater autonomy for nurses in their professional activities, particularly in the provision of first response care.

Data Analysis

The interdisciplinary approach, combining nursing science and anthropology, made it easier to adopt a neutral point of view when confronting different perspectives in the analysis process. The analysis of the verbatim transcripts was structured using Nvivo10 software. Repeated readings of the respondents’ statements enabled emergent themes to be identified. Subsequently, units of meaning were created that could be hierarchized in a problem tree analysis. The themes pertained to different units of meaning: the notion of accepting a wider competence in front line care under the supervision of a physician or without it, knowledge that nurses have or lack, and their different activities. This tree was discussed among the research team. Recurrent themes, and their variations from one account to another, were analyzed according to the characteristics of the interviewees and their differing socio-demographic and thematic attributes. From the thematic point of view, it was determined whether the interviewee was generally practicing outside the regulations, or had opinions conditionally in favour, or unfavourable toward the idea of nurses taking sole charge of patients in situations that, in their opinion, do not require the attention of a doctor. The socio-demographic attributes were sex, age, length of service, medical specialty, and type of health care organization. The data collected could be cross-checked, associated, grouped, discriminated, and related with reference to these different attributes. In this way, it was possible to compare different segments of discourse and to analyze them using a socio-anthropological method that considers the particularities and the lived experience of the speakers (Paillé & Mucchielli, 2005). Each quotation cited here shows the socio-demographic characteristics of the speaker in brackets at the individual’s first appearance in the text.


The guidelines were developed by a group of seven nursing researchers in the ARS (Agency Regional de Santé) of the Ile-de-France region. They were tested in a pilot study involving five nurses and four doctors. This pilot study enabled the team to readjust the original guideline. After validation of the interview schedules, the interviews were conducted by an anthropologist. The identity of the fieldwork researcher made the professionals feel more comfortable because the anthropologist was independent and outside the institution. The research findings and the analyses were discussed collectively by the members of the research team.

Ethical Considerations

In France, ethical approval is not required for this type of research. We obtained the authorization of the direction of each institution. In each one, respondents were informed of the research objectives by their managers. On the day of the meeting, the anthropologist again explained the objective of the research, to gather their opinion on a change in the role of nurses, and obtained consent from each interviewee at his or her place of work. All interviewees were volunteers, could withdraw from the interview, and were not obliged to respond to all questions. Interviews were recorded, anonymized using fictitious names, and transcribed in full. The recorded data and the transcripts are stored in an electronic database and will be destroyed 5 years after the end of the research. Quotations from interviews in this article have been translated into English by the author.

Go to: Results

Respondents did not refer spontaneously to advanced practice competencies because this category is not well known by the nurses and physicians themselves. Some of the interviews reflect points of view unfavourable toward the suggested change in the nursing profession; others accept practices outside the regulations and are in favour of this type of development; and some are highly ambivalent, developing opinions that are conditionally in favour. However, regardless of the opinion of the interviewee, what emerges is an identification of the conditions that would have to be fulfilled before such a development could take place. Half of the doctors were accepting toward practices outside the regulations, and so were more than half of the nurses. It is interesting to note that the responses of male doctors accounted for all unfavourable reactions among the doctors. Of course, our qualitative methodology means that we cannot interpret this finding to generalize this difference between male and female perspectives.

Practices outside the Regulations

In actual practice, nurses go beyond their official responsibilities in all sectors of activity. They take initiatives that they regularize after the event, where necessary, by requesting retroactive medical prescriptions for them. In doing this, some nurses are interpreting and adapting rigid protocols that do not always align with the realities of their workplace, or with the particular circumstances of a patient. Others go further and take sole charge of patients who later leave the hospital without having seen a doctor. In France, each patient arriving in an emergency treatment centre must be seen by a physician as a matter of principle. However, Beatrice sometimes receives patients whose health condition is not serious, according to her. She attends to them, then lets them go, informs the doctor after the event, and then writes the episode up in the patient file. Talking about a person with no fixed address, who is well known and monitored by the health service, she said,

Madame T, when she comes in . . . we almost greets each other with a kiss on the cheek. So I say to her "So, what is the problem? Would you like to eat something?" "Yes, please," and that’s it. We have a little chat, I give her something to eat and off she goes. And so she doesn’t see the psychiatrist. (Beatrice, aged 44, psychiatric emergency nurse)

Some doctors highlighted nurses’ competence in evaluating the clinical condition of patients. "When you have a patient in the middle of a bronchiolitis episode, for example, the hospital nurses have enough know-how to evaluate the seriousness of the child’s condition at a glance" (Oscar, aged 44, general practitioner in a public health centre).

In a health centre, patients are normally seen by appointment. However, people do come in without appointments. The nurses give advice to those who present with health conditions that they judge not to be serious. Sometimes, by giving advice, they manage to reassure these patients to the point where they decide to go home and follow the nurse’s advice without seeing a doctor. Nurses working in health centres receive their patients by appointment in the morning or evening for treatment; during the day, they make their home treatment visits. They alert a doctor if they encounter a problem but also go further in anticipating medical prescriptions.

A patient I go to see for other reasons . . . she sprained her arm, so I go to do her bandage and I sort out the prescription later with the doctor in charge. . . . If I have a catheter which is blocked or if I am not sure, if there’s blood, I take it off and remove the catheter and replace it, without prescription, I authorize it later, that can happen. (Charlotte, aged 39, private health centre nurse)

Nurses and doctors observe situations where nurses are, in effect, delivering "front line care" in the sense that they decide, on the basis of their analysis of the situation, whether to direct the patient to see a doctor or to administer front line care themselves.

Opinions Conditionally in Favour

Some of those interviewed were prepared to accept that some primary patient care should be the responsibility of nurses, provided that they receive specific forms of training and that the new practices are closely circumscribed and officially recognized. These changes would have the advantage of providing types of care more appropriate for the needs of the patients, of enabling better use to be made of professional skills, and of having a positive impact in health-economic terms. However, they also highlighted the obstacles, the drawbacks, and the risks involved in making changes in the modalities of cooperation between professionals. Further training could take place after the initial diploma, be tailored to the needs of each service, and depend on the target population. For example, applying plaster casts is a repetitive procedure that, according to Roberto, "doesn’t require knowledge of the whole of human anatomy." The same goes for dealing with gastroenteritis: "She [the nurse] doesn’t need to know everything about physiopathology, all the human intestinal diseases; it’s enough for her to be able to recognize the signs when it is serious enough to need a doctor’s attention" (Roberto, aged 39, paediatrician in emergency paediatric department).

Certain domains could be prioritized. Health education and dialogue could be offered by the nurse while providing nursing care. In the long term, there would be greater effectiveness and efficiency in the health care system, and time invested by a nurse would have a longer term impact.

It’s a more efficient use of resources, I think, to have a nurse who spends three-quarters of an hour with the parents to do basic care for the child if the child has a fever, rather than for them to see the doctor quickly for 10 minutes and for him to say "What are you doing here? It’s not worth coming to the emergency department for this, it’s nothing," so that the parents get upset, the doctor gets annoyed, the doctor gets tired out, the parents don’t understand, and then they go to a different hospital, to another emergency department and it just goes on like that. (Roberto, aged 39, paediatrician in emergency paediatric department)

The demand for professional recognition has been a constantly recurring one. Odile (aged 48, nurse in a public health centre) regretted that her educational work was invisible. If there was a recognized form of nurse consultation, this would make financial and professional recognition possible, and the work that nurses already do in health centres would become visible.

Michelin (aged 47, general practitioner in a public health centre) was in favour of nurses monitoring some chronic diseases. They could certainly adapt and vary the dosage of medicines. They would also be capable of managing adults’ and children’s vaccination records, and in particular, they are unanimously recognized for their skill in bandaging and dressings. Doctors prescribe the medical products needed for dressings as dictated by nurses, and all agreed that nurses would be completely competent to issue these prescriptions themselves. The involvement of nurses in a more autonomous and enlarged role has the potential to improve patient care.

I would like to be able to do certain things. For example, take the case of an asthma attack: I can evaluate, I know he is having an asthma attack, I can give him Ventoline® (a bronchodilator) straight away without waiting for the doctor to tell me "yes, go ahead, you can give him Ventoline®," that would save everyone’s time. I think the patient’s care would be better. (Odile, aged 48, nurse in a public health centre)

Psychiatric nurses could be solely responsible for seeing some patients, for example, those who need an address for a medico-psychological centre, who need to talk, or who have a social problem. These professionals, at least the most experienced among them—in other words, those who have knowledge of mental illness and several years of experience in psychiatry—are quite capable of calming such patients and of responding to their anxiety, according to André (aged 28, psychiatrist in psychiatric emergency department of a hospital).

Unfavourable Points of View

Obstacles and drawbacks of different types and even questions regarding the feasibility of greater autonomy for this class of professionals, as well as resistance to greater delegation of activities to them, were also raised and expressed by both doctors and nurses.

The nurse could . . . do the first reception of some types of demand for direct primary care, but of course, we know that we will wrap ourselves in the flag and say "be careful, it’s risky!" and all that, but no, we really know quite well that there are things which could be taken on by a nurse. (Gérard, aged 53, general practitioner in a private health centre)

Some nurses argued that they would require the time to fulfil their current duties first before they expanded their areas of competence. If other responsibilities are given to nurses, there is a risk of them "making mistakes" (Louise, aged 32, medical emergency nurse), although, at the same time, there was recognition that nurses could take more initiative.

According to Anita (aged 40, psychiatric emergency nurse), there would need to be more nurses. She would be prepared to take sole charge of patients, but only on this condition. There is also an issue of professional identity.

I am not a doctor or a frustrated nurse. In the end, I chose to be a nurse; I never went to medical school. I don’t regret not having done this wonderful thing they call inserting stitches, I couldn’t care less. I am a nurse, I give other sorts of care. I have different skills. (Brigitte, aged 35, medical emergency nurse)

The currently available human resources would not allow nurses to give enough time to their other activities. "Minor ailments," which nurses are supposed to take care of, are not what delays the work, according to Laurent. The option of greater responsibility would not speed up the flow of patients.

To be honest, they [the nurses] already have a lot of work to do. Often, we are waiting for them to be free rather than the other way around, so if they are given even more tasks, I am not sure that will speed up the flow, it will just put them in greater difficulty. (Laurent, aged 47, emergency specialist)

Bruno (aged 40, emergency specialist) argued strongly against a medical practice that would no longer be "two-speed" but "multi-speed medicine," because different patients would be seen by different professionals who would not have the same level of training and the same skills. In the same way, Patricia wondered about the sense and the appropriateness of such a change in the nurse’s mission in the French context.

In Africa, the competence of a nurse is more or less that of a little doctor, you know? Of course, in situations of emergency or medical vulnerability, paramedics can be trained who can work themselves into a position of diagnostic autonomy. This could be an option. But then I ask myself: "why here?" (Patricia, aged 50, paediatric emergency nurse)

The idea of expanding nurses’ roles in current conditions was, thus, related to the situation in developing countries. Experience as the sole attribute would not suffice. For the status of nurses to change, according to Bruno, there would have to be a solid basis in training because experience can consist only of having done repetitive tasks for a long time and of "bad habits which are rooted in time. Experience doesn’t mean that much."

For some of the activities already referred to (Roberto, aged 39, paediatrician in emergency paediatric department), an additional training for nurses would not need "to be heavy or long." However, Bruno (see aged 40, emergency specialist) considered it indispensable to create a training course with access by competition and with the award of a diploma for those nurses capable of seeing patients on their own, just like the existing French diploma for anaesthesia and operating theatre nurses. In the current state of nursing training, if a patient is not being seen by a doctor, this is considered a lost opportunity for the sick person. There was plenty of testimony to the effect that important problems might be concealed behind a pathology that seems not to be serious.

The authorities believe that patients come to emergency departments without good reason. One day, they will have to understand that people have reasons for coming here. But because they say it’s for nothing, that’s why they say nurses can just see them quickly. (Bruno, aged 40, emergency specialist)

Another risk is that there will be an inequitable distribution of activities between professionals. Odile (aged 48, nurse in a public health centre), who is very involved in setting up protocols to broaden the competence and autonomy of nurses in health centres, expressed her fear and that of her longest serving colleagues that doctors might unload the most unrewarding activities onto them, as has happened in the past.

Today, evacuation of impacted faces is an action which is recognized as one of our AMIs (act medical informer—nurse medical procedure). Well, when I started my career, it was not allowed. OK? It was the junior doctors who had to come round every morning to do that sort of thing.

Brigitte (aged 35, medical emergency nurse) pointed to her own skills and areas of competence and to the specificity of her training.

I have the diagnosis to hand, and I deduce from it what to watch out for. He [the doctor] has the clinical symptoms to hand, and he can deduce the cause. There you have it, right there, at the beginning of year zero of our studies, we are on two completely different tracks. So we each have our own outlook and approach, which is completely different from the other. That’s why I think it’s good for each one to stay in his or her own area of competence.

Pauline (aged 40, general practitioner in a public health centre) was concerned about whether nurses with expanded areas of competence would be covered from the medico-legal point of view. In her view, if the status of nurses changed, and if they had the same role as the doctor, the valuation and remuneration of their activities would also have to change; otherwise, the measure would be unjust.

Gaby (aged 58, nurse in private health centre) spoke about establishing nurse consultations and, caught between enthusiasm and reservation, exclaimed "Oh yes, personally I would love that." However, she also supposed that the aim of the State is to save money and went on to complain about her current working conditions: "We have the right to prescribe, for dressings or for blood glucose test strips, but we aren’t paid for prescribing—I resisted doing prescriptions for 3 years. I said ‘I am prescribing but not being paid, that’s not right.’"

Gerard (aged 53, general practitioner in a private health centre) also had economic arguments against the idea: If hospitals address the most urgent cases and nurses deal with the least serious, what will be left for the general practitioners?

New forms of collaboration would have an impact on the relationships between doctors and nurses but also on those between paramedical professionals. A pyramid-shaped structure works against the recognition of the competencies that nurses could develop. According to Laurent (aged 47, emergency specialist), nurses sending patients for radiology would come up against resistance from the electro-radiology technicians, who would not accept this. Here, a hierarchical order is also being expressed. If general practitioners sending patients to a psychiatrist for a psychiatric evaluation know that this evaluation will be done by a nurse, this will cause problems.

The general practitioners send us people for an evaluation of suicide risk. If we tell them the evaluation is going to be done by a nurse, there will be a lot of trouble in the system. I mean, even doctors are not sure, even doctors can miss something, after thirty or forty years of experience. (Benjamin, aged 54, psychiatrist in psychiatric emergency department)

Finally, there must not be any conflict between professionals, and nurses have to feel supported by the doctors they work with, which is not always the case. Beatrice (aged 44, psychiatric emergency nurse) described her daily experience in psychiatric emergency:

When there is a problem with a patient, and it boils over and you have to restrain him, well, there are psychiatrists who make themselves scarce. They leave you to it, to take the punch in your face. That’s how it is. So if there were psychs, super-competent and who you could work with, I think I wouldn’t do it any more [seeing patients alone]. At the moment, I feel I am not specially covered by the psychiatrists—they send you to the slaughter, so there’s no reason why I should do their job.

What is going on behind these statements and these shared positions? In the course of the discussion, we will describe the French context.

Go to: Discussion

The findings of the survey allow us to illustrate a number of ideas that are at work when the possibility of the role of nurses moving toward greater autonomy is suggested. An almost identical number of reservations and endorsements of the idea of such a transformation of the profession was expressed, both by the doctors and by the nurses. There was no substantial preponderance in the direction of greater autonomy for nurses or for the status quo in their roles and competencies. When health professionals were asked for their opinions regarding the possibility of nurses receiving and treating patients without those patients being seen by a doctor if the nurses considered this unnecessary, these opinions were highly nuanced, with each respondent leaving the room for further discussion and controversy. The research results indicate the extent to which nurses in France act autonomously or even carry out some activities independently and then seek retroactive authorization from a doctor.

We see in the results that there are practices that go beyond the regulations, activities that are already done, and other activities that could be performed. Some of these activities could constitute "advanced practices." So after reading the interviews, it seems interesting to analyze these judgments using the concept of acceptability.

Acceptability is a complex concept that does not yet have an agreed on definition. It is used in the work of a variety of domains (new technology, psychology, economics, ecology, and so forth).

Social acceptability . . . results from a judgmental process by which individuals (1) compare the perceived reality with its known alternatives; and (2) decide whether the "real" condition is superior, or sufficiently similar, to the most favourable alternative condition. If the existing condition is not judged to be sufficient, the individual will initiate behaviour—often, but not always, within a constituency group—that is believed likely to shift conditions toward a more favourable alternative. (Brunson, 1996, p. 9)

This author further develops this notion of acceptability. From his point of view, the basic criteria used in the evaluation of a comparison of alternatives are desirability, equity, and feasibility. To this individual dimension is added a social dimension, which includes a level of tolerance and environmental and practical conditions. Here, the question is whether a practice respects the internalized norms of a group, and whether the group is prepared to take a risk and to accept its potential consequences.

In reality, the distinction between what is acceptable and what is unacceptable is not clearly drawn. There are zones of nuance. Acceptability may be defined as a form of evaluation based on references that are particular to each person, such as experiences, supposed benefits, values, and individual preferences. The social dimension adds to this individual perspective by introducing interactions between individuals, as well as between individuals and institutions (Stankey & Shindler, 2006; Wüstenhagen, Wolsink, & Bürer, 2007). This judgment is a dynamic and provisional process. It is built up through anticipating the impact that the change might have. Stankey and Shindler (2006) list five categories of factors that influence the judgment of acceptability: (a) the context, which can be spatial, temporal, and/or social; (b) the risks and uncertainties linked to the practice; (c) the aesthetic aspect of the outcome; (d) the trust in decision makers and institutions; and (e) personal knowledge and techniques. These categories were adapted for the purposes of our research. They gave us suggestions for interpreting the opinions of doctors and nurses regarding a new organization of front line care.


Factors relating to spatial, temporal, and social context reveal that in each type of health structure, there is a form of proximity and collaboration between doctors and nurses. However, this scenario adapts in response to personal initiatives and to individual analyses of the context, leading to practices that go beyond the regulations.

The highly hierarchical context of the hospital works against making nurses autonomous. The hospital was the only structural setting where starkly unfavourable opinions were expressed. These resistances were due more to an ideological position, or to a defence of territory and power. In a gendered perspective, the fact that most recruits to the nursing profession are female encourages certain stereotypes. Women are assumed to be creatures of devotion, who give unstintingly to take care of others and would even do so for nothing.

According to Anne Véga (1997), the hospital is a place of intrication of collective representations, which are expressed in rituals assigning places, gestures and speech to each person in an extremely precise manner, according to rhythms which are also highly codified. The confrontations of differing logics of power and of prophylactic practices form part of the working environment as well as of bodies. (Véga, 1997, p. 126, Authors’ translation)

For example, in France, nurses lack the prerogative to perform some interventions that are commonly done by nurses in other countries, such as sutures or plaster casts.

Among the obstacles identified were a shortage of time and an insufficient number of staff. Greater autonomy for nurses was interpreted as implying extra work, which could lead to more mistakes in treatment and care. Potential new functions were seen as being additional to activities already being undertaken as part of the nursing role. They were rarely seen as singular and to be performed, at least in part, in the place of current activities, or as enabling some existing practices to become officially recognized.

Nurses and doctors do not oppose the revaluation of nursing. They believe that nurses are capable of widening their domain of competence if they are given the means to do so, and provided with reasons to be motivated and to discover a personal interest that goes beyond the well-being of the patient. However, nurses do not want the most unrewarding activities, which no one wants to do, to be delegated to them, which would only deepen their sense of subordination within a strongly hierarchical system.

Some nurses would be more motivated to acquire new competencies if these were recognized and valued by a change in their status or remuneration, or in the valuation of their activities. For the moment, they engage in training out of personal interest or for the good of their patients, but this extra knowledge is not officially valued. Better recognition of new areas of knowledge they might acquire would be a way of motivating them, particularly by holding out the possibility of progression in their professional careers. Here, too, the use of the skills acquired through training and practice remains a matter of personal initiative.

In terms of context then, acceptability has to do with the competencies to be recognized and valued for nurses to perform activities autonomously in specific and relatively restricted domains. The limitations are mainly linked to the hierarchical and compartmentalized organization of the health professions, especially in hospitals, and to the lack of human resources.

Risks and Uncertainties

The risks and uncertainties linked to practice were expressed and considered. Several interviewees questioned the utility and interest of a proposal to allow nurses to perform front line care, with some considering this option to be dangerous for patients. Some doctors and nurses believe that all pathologies must be diagnosed by doctors because a problem that appears benign might conceal a serious medical condition. The proposed change would mean that the quality of care would be unequal and would depend on the training of the health professional the patient happened to encounter. Behind this idea, one can detect the feeling that the quality of care would vary with the social and economic capital of the patient, who would be more or less capable of having an informed opinion of the care situation he or she finds him or herself in. A certain level of social capital, which not all patients possess, would be needed to obtain access to those professionals considered the most competent when necessary.

It is in this sense that reference is made to the situation in Africa. Health professionals working in developing countries adapt their practices according to the professional staff available and to the means of accessing health care. Paradoxically, no mention was made in the interviews of examples drawn from models of practice in industrialized countries comparable with France, particularly in terms of health system organization (Bourgueil, Marek, & Mousquès, 2005), although these differences are known.

In reality, there are already situations (some reported by our interviewees) in which nurses evaluate a patient’s situation, develop a diagnostic hypothesis, form a judgment about the gravity of the signs and symptoms and about the urgency of intervention, and then decide whether to refer the case to a doctor. Their decision is more linked to questions such as the time available, remuneration, risk taking in terms of the regulations, and support of their medical staff colleagues, than to their actual capacities to evaluate the clinical situation being presented. The risks of lost opportunity for the patient, or of mistakes in diagnosis, were noted. These cases were put forward as potential risks in treatment by nurses, although there was also recognition that doctors can equally make mistakes (Fox, 1959).

Aesthetic Aspects

The aesthetic aspect of the findings has to do with the mobilization of creative resources to transform an experience (Pépin, Kérouac, & Ducharme, 2010) and to offer new forms of meaning. Those interviewed identified some domains in which nurses have acquired particular skills, or where they could easily apply them. For example, nurses are recognized as having skills in performing "beautiful" dressings that doctors, as prescribers, are less good at. In addition, some interviewees suggested that carrying out certain activities or managing certain situations requires different levels of knowledge and that it is not always practical for doctors to do so.

The prospect of giving more autonomy to nurses by widening their sphere of competence and allowing them to make diagnoses and provide necessary care induces a confusion of roles for some interviewees. There is a feeling that such a measure would transform nurses into doctors, but this idea was rejected by both doctors and nurses. Greater autonomy is not necessarily interpreted as greater competence or as a validation of the experience and the content of the nurse’s vocation but as an encroachment on the territory of the doctor and as a change in profession. In contrast, some nurses referred to their quest for excellence in their own practice and to their love for their profession. They do not want to be converted into doctors, even if they are ready to upgrade their own practices to a more complex level of activity.


For the purposes of our discussion, we must consider not only trust in decision makers and/or in institutions external to those directly involved in the practice of health care but also the trust between these health workers themselves. Relationships between professionals are couched in terms of collaboration, hierarchy, or even power, which are linked to their prerogatives.

Contextual obstacles are considered to be a lack of common understanding and of support from the hierarchy. The development of the nursing profession can only take place under certain conditions; there should be agreement between the different parties, trust and solidarity between professionals, appropriate training, or the creation of a new diploma qualification. There would also need to be a sufficient number of professionals in the health services to be able to carry out the reorganization of working practice and the sharing of activities between professionals in the best possible way.


Wider recognition of current competencies would make the knowledge of nurses more visible, as well as the services they already deliver, including those for which they are not legally authorized and do not claim payment. Some of them would be capable of performing certain tasks but would refuse to do so because such tasks exceed their mandate. Enabling their skills to be applied in a better way would improve the effectiveness of the organization of health care. Some nurses do sometimes carry out activities that are supposed to be performed only by medical prescription, putting the interests of the patient first and supporting the interests of team spirit and cooperation between paramedical and medical professionals. These nurses then authorize the situation retroactively with the doctor. These are assumptions of responsibility that result in time saving and in improvements to the treatment patients receive. Such situations take the form of implicit recognition of the competence of nurses. When a doctor retroactively authorizes the action taken by a nurse, he or she does so on the basis of the nurse’s judgment, without examining the patient.

Some restrictions are difficult to understand and have nothing to do with knowledge. Nurses acting alone cannot administer any medicines, even those such as acetaminophen, which are freely available in pharmacies without prescription. Occasionally, under the cover of a hospital’s procedures, nurses are authorized to administer pain relief to a patient who is, for example, in a hospital waiting room. However, in health centers or private clinics, none of the nurses we met were permitted to do so.

Nevertheless, nurses are sometimes more competent than doctors on certain points, although this fact can remain unstated, as is shown by a study by Hughes (1988) in the United Kingdom:

Nurses use subtle non-verbal and cryptic verbal cues to communicate recommendations, which in retrospect appear to have been initiated by the doctor. This "game" ensures that open disagreement is avoided and carries advantages for both parties: the doctor gains from the nurse’s knowledge and experience, while the nurse gains increased self-esteem and professional satisfaction from her more demanding role. (pp. 1–2)

In the same way, research in Spain shows that nurses trained in the delivery of non-complex primary care have essentially the same rate of success in treating health problems as doctors (Begoña et al., 2013).


A variety of arguments have been used for and against the move toward greater autonomy for nurses, and this movement, if it were to take place, would have to be done in such a way as to fulfil certain conditions. In overall terms, the arguments developed during our research correspond to demands relating to the transfer of skills and levels of training and to the exercise of one or another of the possible advanced forms of nursing practice (clinical specialist or "practitioner"), as well as to levels of pay and staffing. Provided that these requirements are met, health professionals would accept these changes. After discussion of the arguments in favour of advanced nursing practice and of the obstacles to front line care being carried out by nurses, the idea can be seen to be accepted, subject to certain conditions concerning training, respect for nursing prerogatives, and recognition of activities. There are different perspectives for further research. In France, this type of theme has not yet been explored, and there is a need for qualitative data to inform health policy makers. From an international point of view, practices in France are not well known, and this makes it difficult to make international comparisons. There is no clinical evaluation of the efficiency of nurses’ activities when performing advanced practice in France. It would be interesting to explore the patients’ points of view and the patient acceptability of the establishment of a consulting nurse role. The French health insurance system and the perspectives of health policy makers would be important to study. Research could be performed in individual organizations where nurses work alone.

Our study has some limitations. The fieldwork was wide in scope, covering different health organizations (emergency departments in hospitals, and private and public health structures). This variation hindered a more situated analysis, focusing on the situation of a particular organization.

In France, a common preconceived idea suggests that doctors and nurses are not ready to accept greater autonomy among nurses, extending their practice to front line care. This work has enabled us to overcome this obstacle and to explore possible future public health policies, new forms of professional organization, and new patterns of activities oriented to advanced practice, as well as the resistance that must be understood and considered. Although medical practice in France has been essentially individual, we can see a tendency for young doctors to opt increasingly for group forms of practice. We know that in countries where collective forms of medical organization are preferred, advanced practice is more established. This trend might have a positive impact on the acceptability of new forms of nursing practice.

Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Viral Diseases of the Skin

THE past decade has seen remarkable progress in knowledge of viruses pathogenic to man. Largely through the development of in vitro cell-culture techniques it is now possible to propagate in the laboratory many viruses whose existence had been assumed because of the diseases that they produce — for example, measles, German measles, chicken pox. Adenoviruses and common-cold viruses. In addition, the same techniques have allowed the isolation of a number of agents, previously unknown, for which diseases in human beings have been sought: ECHO (enteric cytopathic human orphan) viruses and reoviruses are examples. Skin manifestations of viral infections have always...

Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment for Esophageal Cancer – From Early to Advanced Cancers (Core Symposium 1 at the 7th Annual Meeting of JGA)

Esophagectomy is a surgery involving a lot of surgical stress. Therefore, a demand for non-surgical management of superficial esophageal cancer is increasing. Yamada et al. from Osaka University demonstrated results of their basic strategy; endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR)/endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for mucosal cancer and chemo radiotherapy (CRT) for sub mucosal cancer. They revealed that survival after EMR/ESD for T1a cancer was excellent and prognosis after CRT for T1b was comparable to esophagectomy. Iizuka et al. from Toranomon Hospital demonstrated their own results of ESD for superficial esophageal cancer invading into the muscularis mucosa without nodal involvement. They decided the necessity of additional treatment strategy based on the pathologic results of ESD. As ESD followed by surgery or CRT can be performed safely and long-term survival of these patients was favorable, their strategy seemed to be feasible. Yamaguchi et al. from Nagasaki University presented the efficacy of ESD and photodynamic therapy. They demonstrated that a prophylactic oral steroid significantly reduced the stenosis after ESD for lesions more than 3/4 circumferences. They also demonstrated photodynamic therapy as a useful alternative for local recurrence after CRT.

Yamamoto et al. from Osaka Medical Centre for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases retrospectively analyzed prognoses of stage I disease treated either by surgery or CRT, and demonstrated that the long-term survival of patients treated by CRT was comparable with those treated by surgery. They concluded that CRT can be an alternative for esophagectomy in stage I esophageal cancer.

Less invasive surgery is another approach to reduce the surgical risk. Matsumoto et al. from Kawasaki Medical School demonstrated results of transhiatal esophagectomy for superficial esophageal cancer or advanced lower esophageal cancer. They concluded that the less invasive surgery can be indicated for selected patients.

Prediction of therapeutic response is a matter of the greatest importance. Watanabe et al. from Kumamoto University reported the correlation between micro RNA expression in the pre treatment biopsy samples and response to induction DCF. Akutsu et al. from Chiba University demonstrated that high COX2 expression in the pre treatment biopsy samples can be a biomarker for resistance to CRT. Minashi et al. from National Cancer Centre East Hospital demonstrated an efficacy of gene profiling in predicting prognosis of patients with stage II/III esophageal cancer treated by CRT. These efforts might enable tailor-made treatment for esophageal cancer in the near future.

Alteration of chemotherapeutic regimen is another approach to improve the response to CRT. Kimura et al. from Tokushima University reported the results of CRT with a novel regimen consisted of irradiation combined with 5-FU/nedaplatin and indicated that this regimen may improve the survival. Large-scale trials are needed to establish the more efficient drug combination.

Salvage esophagectomy is an effective treatment for patients with remnant or recurrent diseases after definitive chemo radiotherapy, although high morbidity and mortality has been reported. Takemura et al. from Hyogo College of Medicine demonstrated their own experiences on salvage esophagectomy. They could prevent hospital mortality by limiting the lymph node dissection. They also revealed that the long-term survival depended on the stage before CRT.


The contents of these two core symposia illustrated two directions in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies, one of which is a less invasive treatment for early diseases and another is a multimodal treatment strategy for advanced or metastatic diseases. Although there were few debates on the advances in diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumours in these symposia, an accurate diagnosis is essential for making appropriate treatment strategy. Progress in the diagnosis, such as recent endoscopic technology for accurate diagnosis of early cancers and usefulness of positron emission tomography for advanced cancers will be discussed in the future symposium.

ESD has become one of the major treatment modalities for early gastrointestinal cancers. Efforts to extend the indication are in progress and will be good news for patients. CRT is not only a less invasive treatment but also contributes to organ preservation. However, the outcome of patient’s refractory to CRT is pessimistic. Therefore, predictive parameters for the effect of CRT should be established, while safety of salvage treatment should be assured. As a less invasive treatment, significance of minimally invasive surgery, including laparoscopic or thoracoscopic surgery, should be clarified in a future symposium.

In Japan the surgeon’s efforts have been focused on complete removal of regional lymph nodes. D2 dissection for gastric cancer has been proven to have survival benefit in a long-term follow-up of a Dutch trial. Similarly, the number of dissected lymph nodes has been reported to correlate with the prognosis of colon cancer. These findings indicate that lymph node dissection contributes to prolonged survival. On the other hand, several randomized control trials which compared prognosis of patients between standard and extended lymphadenectomy failed to demonstrate the survival benefit, suggesting that the effect of lymph node dissection is limited. Adjuvant chemotherapy might be promising to overcome the limitation.

The effect of adjuvant chemotherapy has already been proven in gastric, colon and pancreatic cancers. In esophageal cancer the survival benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to adjuvant chemotherapy has been proven in Japanese patients. Benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy compared to adjuvant chemotherapy include good compliance for the treatment and increased curability in surgery. However, there is a risk to disease progression in cases refractory to chemotherapy. Therefore, biomarkers to predict response to chemotherapy are needed to decide on an appropriate treatment strategy for each patient.


Less invasiveness and multidisciplinary approach are the two major key words for the management of gastrointestinal malignancies. Efforts in translational research as well as in clinical studies will deliver less invasive and more effective treatment for gastrointestinal cancers.

Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment for Malignancies of the Gastrointestinal Tract

Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have made it possible to detect early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, while the development of novel antitumor agents has contributed to improved survival of patients with advanced cancers. In this review, the contents of the core symposia on ‘Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment for Malignancies of the Gastrointestinal Tract’, held at the 6th and 7th annual meeting of The Japanese Gastroenterological Association, are summarized. At the 6th annual meeting the core symposium focused on ‘Progress in Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies’. On the other hand, the 7th annual meeting focused on ‘Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment for Esophageal Cancer’. Less invasiveness and multidisciplinary approach are the two major key words in the management of gastrointestinal malignancies. Efforts in translational research as well as in clinical studies will deliver less invasive and more effective treatment for gastrointestinal cancers.


The Japanese Gastroenterological Association (JGA) organizes core symposia at the annual scientific meetings in order to enable continuous discussion on several important topics. One of the topics is ‘Recent Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment for Malignancies of the Gastrointestinal Tract’. Recent advances in diagnostic imaging have made it possible to detect early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, which could be cured by less invasive treatment. On the other hand, owing to development of novel antitumor agents, prognosis of patients with advanced or metastatic cancers is getting better. In this review the contents of the core symposia are briefly summarized.

Progress in Chemotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Gastrointestinal Malignancies (Core Symposium 1 at the 6th Annual Meeting of JGA)

A recent trend in Japan for resectable stage II/III esophageal squamous cell cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery. From Kumamoto University treated node-positive esophageal cancer with two courses of modified DCF (docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil) regimen as neoadjuvant or induction chemotherapy, and demonstrated an excellent treatment effect and sufficient downstaging. Induction chemotherapy is defined as the use of drug therapy as the initial treatment for patients presenting with advanced cancer that cannot be treated by other means. In order to improve the survival of esophageal cancer, establishment of multimodal treatment strategy, especially of neoadjuvant treatment, is essential.

Two important topics on chemotherapy for gastric cancer were adjuvant chemotherapy for resectable cancers and a new regimen for peritoneal dissemination. Emi et al. from Kyushu University demonstrated the strategy of clinical trials on the adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, using S-1 plus docetaxel. They suggested that the poor compliance due to postoperative morbidity or disorders might be a major problem in the adjuvant chemotherapy. An efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for advanced cancer will be clarified in the near future. Ishigami et al. from Tokyo University reported a phase II trial of oral S-1 plus intraperitoneal paclitaxel for peritoneal metastases. They treated 18 patients and the response rate was 56% (95% CI 32–79). Sixteen gastrectomies, including 13 curative resections, were carried out. Large-scale trials on such an effective regimen are expected to clarify the efficacy.

Recent advances in chemotherapy for colorectal cancer have improved the survival of unresectable or metastatic cases. As the response to chemotherapy varies among individuals, response predictors would be helpful to decide on a personalized treatment strategy. Ishizuka et al. from Dokkyo University investigated the possibility of Glasgow prognostic score in predicting response to FOLFILI or FOLFOX4, and demonstrated that the Glasgow prognostic score was a significant prognostic factor by multivariate analysis. Furukawa et al. from KKR Sapporo Medical Centre demonstrated that skin toxicity was a predictive marker for response to cetuximab in Japanese patients as well as in Western countries.

Targeted therapy has become one of the key modalities for colorectal cancer. EGFR-KRAS signalling is especially a major target. Sugimoto et al. from Osaka Medical Centre for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases investigated the efficacy of cetuximab in Japanese patients with K-ras wild-type advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer, and revealed that the efficacy of cetuximab in Japanese patients was comparable to those reported in the Western countries. Kimura et al. from Tokushima University reported the significance of a high sensitivity analysis of KRAS and BRAF in predicting the response to cetuximab. The two-step PCR-RFLP method increased the detection rate of both KRAS and BRAF mutations, and thus may help in selecting patients who benefit from cetuximab.

Rapid progress has also been observed in the strategy for colorectal liver metastasis. Sato et al. from Kitazato University demonstrated the improved survival after the introduction of FOLFOX. They demonstrated that neoadjuvant chemotherapy using recent new drug regimens may improve the survival of colorectal liver metastasis, although a further large-scale analysis is needed.

15 Healthcare schemes in India that you must know about

Health is a fundamental human right and a global social goal. It is pertinent for the realization of basic human needs and for a better quality of life.

Health is a causative factor that affects country’s aggregate level of economic growth. Since development is a consequence of good health, even the poorest developing countries should make it a priority to invest in the health sector. Unfortunately, health has been poorly invested in by countries with low human development, and the health sector still remains largely untapped and continues to suffer neglect.

Where does India stand?

India’s rank in the Human Development Index Report 2018 (130 out of 189 countries) issued by the UNDP depicts the level of ignorance of the health sector in a country like India.

India is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. The very essential components of primary health care– promotion of food supply, proper nutrition, safe water and basic sanitation and provision for quality health information concerning the prevailing health problems – is largely ignored. Access to healthcare services, provision of essential medicines and scarcity of doctors are other bottlenecks in the primary health care scenario.

Healthcare schemes in India you must know about

Under the National Health Mission, the government has launched several schemes like:

1. Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A) programme essentially looks to address the major causes of mortality among women and children as well as the delays in accessing and utilizing health care and services. It also introduces new initiatives like the use of Score Card to track health performance, National Iron + Initiative to address the issue of anaemia across all age groups and the Comprehensive Screening and Early interventions for defects at birth, diseases, and deficiencies among children and adolescents.

2. Rashtriya Bal Swasthya Karyakram (RBSK) is an important initiative aiming at early identification and early intervention for children from birth to 18 years to cover 4 ‘D’s viz. Defects at birth, Deficiencies, Diseases, Development delays including disability. Early detection and management diseases including deficiencies bring added value in preventing these conditions to progress to its more severe and debilitating form

3. The Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram The key principle of this programme is adolescent participation and leadership, Equity and inclusion, Gender Equity and strategic partnerships with other sectors and stakeholders. The programme enables all adolescents in India to realize their full potential by making informed and responsible decisions related to their health and well-being and by accessing the services and support they need to do so.

4. The government of India has launched Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakaram to motivate those who still choose to deliver at their homes to opt for institutional deliveries. It is an initiative with a hope that states would come forward and ensure that benefits under JSSK would reach every needy pregnant woman coming to government institutional facility.

  • Since the rate of deaths in the country because of communicable and non-communicable diseases is increasing at an alarming rate, the government has introduced various programmes to aid people against these diseases.
  • In India, approximately about 5.8 million people die because of Diabetes, heart attack, cancer etc each year. In other words, out of every 4 Indians, 1 has a risk of dying because of a Non- Communicable disease before the age of 70.
  • According to the World Health Organisation, 1.7 million Indian deaths are caused by heart diseases.

5. National AIDS Control Organisation was set up so that every person living with HIV has access to quality care and is treated with dignity. By fostering close collaboration with NGOs, women’s self-help groups, faith-based organizations, positive people’s networks, and communities, NACO hopes to improve access and accountability of the services. It stands committed to building an enabling environment wherein those infected and affected by HIV play a central role in all responses to the epidemic – at state, district and grassroots level.

6. Revised National TB Control Programme is a state-run tuberculosis control initiative of Government of India with a vision of achieving a TB free India. The program provides, various free of cost, quality tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services across the country through the government health system.

7. National Leprosy Eradication Programme was initiated by the government for Early detection through active surveillance by the trained health workers and to provide Appropriate medical rehabilitation and leprosy ulcer care services.

8. The Government of India has launched Mission Indradhanush with the aim of improving coverage of immunization in the country. It aims to achieve at least 90 percent immunization coverage by December 2018 which will cover unvaccinated and partially vaccinated children in rural and urban areas of India.

9. In order to address the huge burden of mental disorders and the shortage of qualified professionals in the field of mental health, Government of India has implemented National Mental Health Program to ensure the availability and accessibility of minimum mental healthcare for all in the foreseeable future.

10. Pulse Polio is an immunization campaign established by the government of India to eliminate polio in India by vaccinating all children under the age of five years against the polio virus.

11. The Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY) was announced with objectives of correcting regional imbalances in the availability of affordable/ reliable tertiary healthcare services and also to augment facilities for quality medical education in the country by setting up of various institutions like AIIMS and upgrading government medical college institutions.

12. Since there are huge income disparities, therefore, the government has launched several programmes in order to support the financially backward class of the country. As about 3.2 crore people in India fall under the National Poverty line by spending on healthcare from their own pockets in a single year. The most important programme launched by the government is Rashtriya Arogya Nidhi which provides financial assistance to the patients that are below poverty line and are suffering from life-threatening diseases, to receive medical treatment at any government run super specialty hospital/ institution.

13. National Tobacco Control Programme was launched with the objective to bring about greater awareness about the harmful effects of tobacco use and about the Tobacco Control Laws and to facilitate the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control Laws.

14. Integrated Child Development Service was launched to improve the nutrition and health status of children in the age group of 0-6 years, lay the foundation for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child, effective coordination and implementation of policy among the various departments and to enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutrition needs through proper nutrition and health education.

15. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana is a government-run health insurance programme for the Indian poor. It aims to provide health insurance coverage to the unrecognized sector workers belonging to the below poverty line and their family members shall be beneficiaries under this scheme.

How does Oxfam India work to address healthcare

Costly healthcare is pushing millions below poverty line every year, and denies care to many who are already poor. Key essential medicines remain unaffordable and inaccessible to people. Oxfam India has been part of a nationwide process working towards improvements in the delivery of public health services. We are working across states to improve access to healthcare and essential medicines. Here is how:

Oxfam India’s work on Essential Medicines in our intervention regions this year

1. Oxfam India covered 15 districts in Bihar, 14 in Odisha and 10 districts in Chhattisgarh reaching out to over 60,00,000 people in these states with the message of demanding greater access to affordable essential medicines. The campaign was done collaboration with Jan Swasthya Abhiyan (JSA) and other Health Networks. The campaign was designed to create awareness among general mass and strengthen communities’ voice for availing their rights for essential medicines and diagnostic facilities.

2. In Bihar, the name of the campaign on essential medicines was carried out under the tagline of #HaqBantaHai and sub tag of "Struggle from 14 to 40" with an ask to increase the per person, per capita government expenditure on medicines from Rs. 14 to Rs. 40. As a result of the campaign the then Finance Minister, Government of Bihar, committed to provision INR 500 crore in the budget of Bihar for year 2018-19. He committed that will strive to spend Rs. 40 per person, per capita during FY 2018-19. However, due to political instability and elections in Bihar, this commitment did not see the light of the day.

3. In Odisha, over 1000 letters written by the community members were posted to the Chief Minister’s office in Odisha demanding free medicines and free diagnostic services at the health centers, and faster transportation services. Post the campaign spike, the State Health Minister ordered for the display of information including CDMOs contact number in all the public health centers. The national political parties in Odisha invited Oxfam India to make presentation on the campaign in their Economic Affairs Committee meeting. A political party has agreed to include some of the demands in their forthcoming 2019 election manifesto. Due to constant advocacy under access to medicine campaign in Odisha, an enhanced budgetary allocation from Rs.263 Cr. in 2017-18 to Rs.304 Cr. in 2018-19 is provisioned in the budget for the NIRAMAYA Scheme alone. The government has also launched a new scheme for diagnosis called NIDAN in 2018.

4. In Chhattisgarh, in partnership with the state Jan Swasthya Abhiyan, the data generated from active tracking of stock of essential medicines in public hospitals in 56 facilities of 10 districts has been used for state level advocacy with high media outreach. Various stakeholders, like Chhattisgarh Medicine Services Corporation (CGMSC),

Chhattisgarh State AIDS Control Society (CGSACS), CBOs and patients organizations were brought together for joint consultations. During one consultation, the Chhattisgarh Positive People’s Network raised concerns related to shortage and non-procurement of HIV/AIDS medicines and related consumables, as a result of which a three month inventory of the required items were procured and distributed by the state health department. Additionally, through training and survey on medicines, the capacities of civil society organizations have been built around the issue of medicines. Regional consultations have been held in order to build solidarity and a campaign around the Right to health and health equity.
India’s home healthcare market is expected to grow to around $4.46 billion by 2018 and $6.21 billion in 2020, says Cyber Media Research (CMR).

Market for home healthcare services in India to double in a year: report

Largely serviced by unorganized players, start-ups and recent hospital initiatives, India's home healthcare market stood at around $3.20 billion in 2016.

The market for home healthcare services in India—a cheaper and more comfortable option for patients—is set to double in a year’s time, health economists say.

Though in a nascent stage in India, and largely serviced by unorganized players, start-ups and recent hospital initiatives, the market stood at around $3.20 billion in 2016, and is expected to grow to around $4.46 billion by 2018 and $6.21 billion in 2020, according to Cyber Media Research (CMR) Ltd analysis and industry estimates. CMR is an ISO 9001: 2008 company and an institutional member of the Market Research Society of India.

With advancements in information technology and integration with medical electronics, it is now possible to provide high-quality care at home at an affordable price. Additionally, home healthcare services mean more beds available for needy patients.

"Home healthcare services are an extension of hospital services into the patient’s house and providing personalized care by competent professionals. Home healthcare companies work with hospitals to widen their reach, by freeing the beds for new patients while covering almost 70% of all healthcare requirements of a consumer and extending to management of lifestyle and chronic diseases like diabetes, hypertension etc. over a consumer’s lifetime," said Vivek Srivastava, CEO and co-founder of Noida-based HealthCare at HOME, a home healthcare provider.

"Its advantages include cost effectiveness with excellent clinical outcomes as customers end up saving 20-50% costs as compared to regular hospital treatment depending upon the services taken. For instance, ICU services are 50% cheaper than those provided in hospitals. Not to forget, it includes customized care plans prescribed by the patient’s doctor; quicker patient recovery; and professional protocol-led healthcare," he said.

There is tremendous pressure on hospitals in delivering services at their facility, especially in critical care. As per government and private hospital statistics, about 40% of patients admitted in hospitals suffer from chronic diseases such as heart diseases, diabetes, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

The typical cost of stay in an ICU in a hospital could range between Rs35,000 to Rs50,000 a day. By contrast, setting up an ICU facility at home with equipment and medical expertise would range between Rs7,500 to Rs10,000 a day.

A monthly package of services for recovery from stroke could cost between Rs25,000 to Rs30,000 at home compared to Rs5,000 a day at a hospital, according to estimates from private hospitals. Another argument regarding home healthcare services is lower incidence of hospital-acquired infections.

"There is focused attention to the patient rather than distributed over 10 or more patients, convenience of receiving care in the comfort and familiar surroundings of a home rather than alien environment in a hospital and significantly lower cost when compared to an extended stay in a hospital," said Rajiv Mathur, Founder CCU (Critical Care Unified ) Health Care another home healthcare service provider.

"Interconnectivity through devices and portability of treatments and equipments makes it feasible to provide critical care at the comfortable environs of home. Patients receive individualized care designed to meet their specific needs. Home health care enables people to recuperate in the comfort and privacy of their own home, at a cost savings of 36-50% over hospitalization or nursing home confinement," he said.

Even hospitals are entering the home healthcare market. Max Healthcare, a healthcare provider, recently introduced ‘Max@Home’, its home-based healthcare service offering programme. Max@Home has been launched as a specialized continued care programme, backed by Max Healthcare’s 12-hospital network.

The programme facilitates real-time patient monitoring by connecting doctors, dedicated case managers, trained nursing staff and emergency services through an efficient technology-infrastructure created by Western India Products (WIPRO ), a multinational IT consulting and system integration Service Company.

There will be services to meet a growing demand for long-stay and palliative care even in tertiary specializations like cardiology, oncology, neurology and orthopaedics.

"The demand for at-home healthcare delivery is growing. At the same time, quality post-operative care in familiar surroundings has been observed to enable faster patient recovery. We have plans to deliver the personalized and customizable service offering across Delhi NCR, extending to Mohali Tri-city by the next quarter and Dehradun by 2018," Rajit Mehta, CEO and managing director, Max Healthcare said.

Home healthcare though gaining pace in India is currently not covered comprehensively by health insurance companies. However, the treatment administered at home is only as prescribed by the treating doctor of the patient.

There have been questions on the quality of healthcare at home and whether beds at home can really be a substitute for hospital beds.

"Home healthcare is becoming a brisk business nowadays. As elderly population in the country is increasing very fast and more and more people want to have better social positioning, facilities such as home healthcare seem very flashy at face value and is manifestation of people’s social status," said Arup Mitra, professor, Health Policy Research Unit (HPRU) at Institute of Economic Growth.

"It is in a preliminary stage and may prove to be an illusion in future as there is no guarantee of risks and insurance involved," he said.

My mother has been an incredible source of inspiration in my journey of becoming a nurse. She worked for Ghana’s Ministry of Education, and often took in and cared for children who were in need or unable to get an education. Her humanitarian gesture inspired me to empathize with others, especially with women and children. She cultivated my interest in health promotion, and along the way I’ve seen how the burden of disease is reduced when people are empowered to take control of their health.

I wanted to be a nurse who could communicate effectively and professionally with patients, who takes good care of them, and who respects patients’ privacy. To better prepare myself, I pursued further education in Nursing and Psychology, Public Health, as well as Health Services Administration.

Prior to joining the United Nations, I worked as a registered nursing officer at Ghana’s Ministry of Defence. This experience helped me hone my professional skills and develop empathy for people affected by conflict. In Ghana, the Buduburam refugee settlement sheltered more than 12,000 refugees who had fled Liberia’s two civil wars. Each time I drove past the camp, I felt motivated to improve the living conditions of populations suffering from war. That was when the idea of working for the United Nations came to me.

Back then, I couldn’t find any positions at the United Nations that would allow me to directly work with the refugees in Ghana—but I spotted an opportunity to indirectly help people in other countries also affected by conflict. By joining the medical team in charge of maintaining the health of United Nations staff, I could help the refugees by increasing productivity within the organization.

I applied and was recruited to work at the United Nations Mission in Nepal in 2007. My career with the Organization has since taken me to Kosovo, Congo, Iraq, and right now, Darfur in the Sudan. Working in these areas can be challenging. I remember how vigilant I became when I went on a vacation after the first month in Iraq. Whenever someone in my family banged a door at night, I found myself awake, acting like a soldier on guard. Even so, I have never regretted my decision. I really enjoy my work because I’m fulfilling my dream. Whenever a patient says "thank you" or "God bless you" to me, I feel proud and grateful.

I am enthusiastic about health education for women and children. I have always considered the lack of knowledge as the real poverty. When I was in Iraq, I had the opportunity to volunteer at a health promotion programme initiated by UN Women and the United Nations Development Programme. I joined the Programme because the lack of reproductive health awareness shocked me to the core. As a medical practitioner, a woman, and a mother, I simply needed to do my part to help them, and sharing information is one way of doing so.

My journey with the UN has been so rewarding – but I still look forward to going back home one day to assist with Ghana’s health education. I believe when a country puts more effort into improving health awareness, the national health expenditure decreases, which advances a country’s development. It is another way to impact humanity, just as my mom did when I was a child.

With the advent of HIV and AIDS, many families, including mine, have been affected. As a nurse, it was difficult to see the suffering of infected people and their families: They were neglected, felt abandoned and stigmatized. Even healthcare professionals were so afraid to go near AIDS patients because there was little knowledge of the disease and how one could be infected.

I happened to be one of the first nurses at Bamenda in Northwest Cameroon to undergo training on HIV and AIDS counselling. I wanted to acquire more knowledge on caring for the infected and the affected. I understood that AIDS patients needed to feel loved. They also needed help to resolve family conflicts that arise after diagnosis of infection. That was my role as a consultant for the National Technical Group which was fighting the disease in Cameroon. I also participated in the establishment of local AIDS committees in villages.

Nursing for me is not just a job, it is a calling which I felt ever since I was 13 years old and gave my first blood donation to save a mate’s life. By nature, I am always drawn to the most vulnerable and the under privileged. They are the ones who need you the most.

Before joining the United Nations, I worked in Cameroon for 25 years in various capacities in the field of nursing. I started as State Registered Nurse in a provincial hospital and went through various positions before moving on to become a Senior Nursing Officer.

With this experience, I felt the need to extend my services and expertise to people in other countries, so I applied for the United Nations Volunteer (UNV) programme. I was drawn to the Organization’s humanitarian work.

My first assignment as a UNV was with the Medical Clinic in the United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone in 2005. I was later appointed the Head Nurse of the Clinic in January 2006, and was assigned administrative tasks. Eighteen months later, I applied for a professional position and transferred to the Medical Service of the United Nations Operations in Cote D’Ivoire.

The United Nations Medical Service provides health services to the Organization’s staff. Securing the health of its personnel is a top priority. We take this very seriously, and try to render quality care. As peacekeeping missions are usually in places where there may be a lack of adequate medical facilities, we put in place easily accessible and ready-to-function facilities.

I am based in the Abidjan Clinic, one of three clinics in the Mission. By United Nations categorization, it is a level 1+ clinic, meaning that it is close to the level of a hospital facility. It has an operating theatre, x-ray and dental units. We provide a 24-hour service, with about 120-180 personnel visiting each week for consultation. We provide the first line of care and refer patients to higher level hospitals, if necessary.

As Chief Nurse, it is my responsibility to ensure that the care we provide is acceptable to our personnel. The bulk of my work has to do with administration. I am also involved in arranging medical evacuations, movement of personnel and deployment of medical staff. In addition, I provide counselling for voluntary HIV testing. Sometimes, I accompany patients with serious conditions, who are referred to a higher level hospital in another country or are being repatriated.

What I find interesting about the position is the wider scope of experience I get. It gives me inside knowledge of the policies and rules of the Organization, and the opportunity to be innovative and creative.

It can also be challenging as your colleagues depend on you for their health needs. Not long after I assumed the position, we lost a staff member we had referred to another hospital. It was very difficult to participate in the investigation on possible negligence on the part of the Medical Service.

We are also providing care in a multicultural environment with different religious beliefs. We try as much as possible to respect that by striking a delicate balance between cultural differences and ensuring that staff members get timely care.

For me, it has been fascinating and a very rewarding experience working in United Nations peacekeeping missions. I would advise prospective applicants to make sure they acquire the necessary educational qualification and professional skills – working with the Organization is highly competitive.

Health care

Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, midwifery, nursing, medicine, optometry, audiology, pharmacy, psychology, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care. It includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care, as well as in public health.

Access to health care may vary across countries, communities, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Providing health care services means "the timely use of personal health services to achieve the best possible health outcomes" Factors to consider in terms of healthcare access include financial limitations (such as insurance coverage), geographic barriers (such as additional transportation costs, possibility to take paid time off of work to use such services), and personal limitations (lack of ability to communicate with healthcare providers, poor health literacy, low income). Limitations to health care services affects negatively the use of medical services, efficacy of treatments, and overall outcome (well-being, mortality rates).

Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, and well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.

An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy, development and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be completely eliminated by deliberate health care interventions.

Nursing in Canada

Registered Nursing in Canada

Canada's health-care system couldn't function without registered nurses (RNs). They interact with patients more than doctors and care for the whole person, including their physical, intellectual and social needs. RNs use high-tech equipment, perform complex procedures and lead and manage staff. RNs can further their education and be rewarded with even greater career opportunities.

Nurses work in a variety of settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centres, clinics, community agencies, research and policy centres, correctional services and businesses. Salaries of RNs, licensed practical nurses (LPNs) and registered psychiatric nurses (RPNs) range from about $40,000 to $80,000 depending on location, education and level of responsibility. Canada has an ongoing shortage of nurses, so it's a great time to enter the profession.

Browse the resources on the right to learn more about nursing in Canada.

Registered nurses include nurses who have passed either the Canadian Registered Nurse Examination or the Quebec examination (examine professional de l'OIIQ) and have registered with their provincial or territorial regulatory body. RNs can specialize in many areas of care. Read Framework for the Practice of Registered Nurses in Canada for a more detail.

Registered psychiatric nurses provide nursing care, supportive counselling and life skills programming to patients in psychiatric hospitals, mental health clinics, long-term care and community-based settings.

Licensed practical nurses provide nursing care usually under the direction of medical practitioners, registered nurses, or other health team members. (The term licensed practical nurse is used throughout Canada, except Ontario, where registered practical nurse is used and in Quebec, where nursing assistant is used.)